8.5. Exercises: ArraysΒΆ

OK, rookie. It's time to train you on how to modify the shuttle's cargo manifest. The following actions will teach you how to add, remove, modify and rearrange our records for the items stored in our hold.

  1. Create an array called practiceFile with the following entry: 273.15. Use the push method to add the following elements to the array. Add items a & b one at a time, then use a single push to add the items in part c. Print the array after each step to confirm the changes.

    1. 42
    2. "hello"
    3. false, -4.6, "87"

    Code it at repl.it

    Congratulations, rookie. You can now add items to an array.

  2. push, pop, shift and unshift are used to add/remove elements from the beginning/end of an array. Bracket notation can be used to modify any element within an array. Starting with the cargoHold array ['oxygen tanks', 'space suits', 'parrot', 'instruction manual', 'meal packs', 'slinky', 'security blanket'], write statements to do the following:

    1. Use bracket notation to replace 'slinky' in the array with 'space tether'. Print the array to confirm the change.
    2. Remove the last item from the array with pop. Print the element removed and the updated array.
    3. Remove the first item from the array with shift. Print the element removed and the updated array.
    4. Unlike pop and shift, push and unshift require arguments inside the (). Add the items 1138 and '20 meters' to the array - the number at the start and the string at the end. Print the updated array to confirm the changes.
    5. Use a template literal to print the final array and its length.

    Code it at repl.it

    Status check, rookie. Which array methods ADD items, and where are the new entries placed? Which methods REMOVE items, and where do the entries come from? Which methods require entries inside the ``()``?

  3. The splice method can be used to either add or remove items from an array. It can also accomplish both tasks at the same time. Review the splice appendix if you need a syntax reminder. Use splice to make the following changes to the final cargoHold array from exercise 2. Be sure to print the array after each step to confirm your updates.

    1. Insert the string 'keys' at index 3 without replacing any other entries.
    2. Remove 'instruction manual' from the array. (Hint: indexOf is helpful to avoid manually counting an index).
    3. Replace the elements at indexes 2 - 4 with the items 'cat', 'fob', and 'string cheese'.

    Code it at repl.it

    Well done, cadet. Now let's look at some finer details about array methods. We've got to keep our paperwork straight, so you need to know when your actions change the original records.

  4. Some methods---like splice and push---alter the original array, while others do not. Use the arrays

    holdCabinet1 ['duct tape', 'gum', 3.14, false, 6.022e23]
    

    and

    holdCabinet2 ['orange drink', 'nerf toys', 'camera', 42, 'parsnip']
    

    to explore the following methods: concat, slice, reverse, sort. Refer back to the chapter if you need to review the proper syntax for any of these methods.

    1. Print the result of using concat on the two arrays. Does concat alter the original arrays? Verify this by printing holdCabinet1 after using the method.
    2. Print a slice of two elements from each array. Does slice alter the original arrays?
    3. reverse the first array, and sort the second. What is the difference between these two methods? Do the methods alter the original arrays?

    Code it at repl.it

    Good progress, cadet. Here are two more methods for you to examine.

  5. The split method converts a string into an array, while the join method does the opposite.

    1. Try it! Given the string str = 'In space, no one can hear you code.', see what happens when you print str.split() vs. str.split('e') vs. str.split(' ') vs. str.split(''). What is the purpose of the parameter inside the ()?
    2. Given the array arr = ['B', 'n', 'n', 5], see what happens when you print arr.join() vs. arr.join('a') vs. arr.join(' ') vs. arr.join(''). What is the purpose of the parameter inside the ()?
    3. Do split or join change the original string/array?
    4. The benefit, cadet, is that we can take a string with delimiters (like commas) and convert it into a modifiable array. Try it! Alphabetize these hold contents: "water,space suits,food,plasma sword,batteries", and then combine them into a new string.

    Code it at repl.it

    Nicely done, astronaut. Now it's time to bring you fully up to speed.

  6. Arrays can hold different data types, even other arrays! A multi-dimensional array is one with entries that are themselves arrays.

    1. Define and initialize the following arrays, which hold the name, chemical symbol and mass for different elements:
      1. element1 = ['hydrogen', 'H', 1.008]
      2. element2 = ['helium', 'He', 4.003]
      3. element26 = ['iron', 'Fe', 55.85]
    2. Define the array table, and use push(arrayName) to add each of the element arrays to it. Print table to see its structure.
    3. Use bracket notation to examine the difference between printing table[1] and table[1][1]. Don't just nod your head! I want to HEAR you describe this difference. Go ahead, talk to your screen.
    4. Using bracket notation and the table array, print the mass of element1, the name for element 2 and the symbol for element26.
    5. table is an example of a 2-dimensional array. The first "level" contains the element arrays, and the second level holds the name/symbol/mass values. Experiment! Create a 3-dimensional array and print out one entry from each level in the array.

    Code it at repl.it

Excellent work, records keeper. Welcome aboard.