When programmers make web pages, they want their pages to be beautiful, interactive, and fun. Programmers may use JavaScript to make their pages interactive, but JavaScript does not do much to define the structure and appearance of a web page. The next two chapters cover HTML and CSS, which are the two most common languages for structuring content and making it beautiful.

Before jumping in to learn HTML and CSS, we need to understand how web pages appear on screens. The process involves the browser and the server that hosts the code. You are probably very familiar with browsers as the tool that gives us access to the internet. However, programmers think of browsers a little differently. For them, the browser is what translates the code into a web page.

When you visit a web page in a browser, three main steps happen:

  1. The browser sends a request to the server for the web page.
  2. The server responds with the code that makes up the web page.
  3. The browser takes the code and renders it to present the web page that the code creates.

When the browser renders the page, HTML outlines the structure of the page’s content.


Not all browsers handle code the same way. You might notice discrepancies between browsers, such as font or spacing of elements. If you are confident that your code is correct, the discrepancy is likely browser-related.

In later chapters, request and response between browsers and servers will be covered in greater detail.

What is HTML?

Indicators of how HTML works are in its name. HTML is short for Hypertext Markup Language.

Hypertext is text that includes references to other text known as hyperlinks.

With coding languages, there is a family of languages called markup languages. Markup languages annotate the text of a document and define the structure. HTML is the markup language that defines the structure of hypertext.

HTML’s two main components, elements and tags, are key to defining the structure of content.

HTML Elements

When a programmer creates a web page, they break the content down by type. They may outline a structure for the page on paper first, highlighting what each item is. With HTML, a programmer can add a lot of different types of content to a page. In this chapter, the focus is on headings, paragraphs, images, and more.

An element is a segment of an HTML page. Elements are oftentimes broken down by content type.

HTML tags

An HTML tag is the syntax that the computer processes to determine the type and content of an HTML element.

Tags surround the content within the element, so in all cases, programmers need to have opening and closing tags.

Each tag has the following structural elements:

  1. < to start a tag and > to close it.
  2. The type of element it is.
  3. Optional additional specification about the element’s appearance.
  4. Closing tags include the same information as the opening tag with a / after the < bracket.

Here is an example of a line of HTML:

<element type>content</element type> 

HTML Writing Style

Programmers write HTML different ways with different style guides and philosophies. Semantic HTML is not about the appearance of the web page, but about the specific meaning of the elements. Semantic HTML helps programmers communicate through code and may be easier to pick up at first. Programmers can make a paragraph larger than a heading. But by looking at the HTML, another programmer can understand which is the paragraph and which is the heading. Another benefit to semantic HTML is that it is easier for beginning programmers to visualize the end results. Some examples of semantic HTML tags are: <p>, <h1>, <h2>, and <div>.


Making code work is important and so is making it easier for other programmers to read. Not every piece of code a programmer reads is something they wrote.

Check Your Understanding


What does HTML stand for?

  1. Happy Tickles Make Laughter
  2. Hypertext Markup Language
  3. Hypertext Mockup Language
  4. Hyperlink Markup Layout