11.1. Functions as Values

Functions are powerful tools in any programming language, and JavaScript uses these tools in some flexible and creative ways. This chapter introduces a bit more of the power of functions.

11.1.1. Functions Are Data

We defined a value as "a specific piece of data." Some examples are the number 42, the string "LC101", and the array ["MO", "FL", "DC"]. Functions are also values, and while they appear to be very different from other values we have worked with, they share many core characteristics.

In particular, functions have a data type, just like all other values. Recall that a data type is a group of values that share characteristics, such as strings and numbers. Strings share the characteristics of having a length, while numbers don't. Numbers can be manipulated in ways that strings cannot, via operations like division and subtraction.


The data type of the type conversion function Number is function. In fact, all functions are of type function.

console.log(typeof 42);
console.log(typeof "LC101");
console.log(typeof Number);

Console Output


Like other data types, functions may be assigned to variables. If we create a function named hello, we can assign it to a variable with this syntax:

function hello() {

   // function body


let helloFunc = hello;

When a variable refers to a function, we can use the variable name to call the function:


The variable helloFunc can be thought of as an alias for the function hello. When we call the function helloFunc, JavaScript sees that it refers to the function hello and calls that specific function.

When we use a variable name, we are really using its value. If the variable course is assigned the value "LC101", then console.log(course) prints "LC101". When a variable holds a function, it behaves the same way as when it holds a number or a string. The variable refers to the function.

The variable helloFunc on the left *referst to* the function hello on the right

A variable that refers to a function.

Again, functions are values. They can be used just like general values. For example:

  • Functions may be assigned to variables.

  • Functions may be used in expressions, such as comparisons.

  • Functions may be converted to other data types.

  • Functions may be printed using console.log.

  • Functions may be passed as arguments to other functions.

  • Functions may be returned from other functions.

Some of these function behaviors do not prove to be useful. You will probably never need to convert a function to a boolean, or ask whether a function is greater than 5. However, other behaviors, like passing functions as arguments and assigning them to variables, turn out to be extremely useful.