29.1. Introduction to Statistics and Data Modeling

29.1.1. Readings

Read the following articles, and watch the videos.

Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics.

  • Don’t be afraid to explore the links in the article to get a more in depth understanding of the material.

Understanding Descriptive Statistics | by Sarang Narkhede.

How to choose the best chart or graph for your data.

Python Statistics Fundamentals: How to Describe Your Data – Real Python.

Descriptive statistics and data visualization. An introduction to statistics and working with data.

  • This is a great video explaining descriptive statistics and visualization, however there are commercials at various points. Just ignore or skip ahead.

An introduction to inferential statistics.

  • We are looking for a general understanding of the terminology and thinking around inferential statistics.

Statistics Made Easy!.

  • This is a great video offering a simplified overview of inferential statistical terms. However there are commercials, ignore and skip ahead.

Additional resources:

Seeing Theory: A visual introduction to probability and statistics..

  • An interactive book on probability

From data to Viz | Find the graphic you need.

  • Leads you to the most appropriate graph for your data. It links to the code to build it and lists common caveats you should avoid.

29.1.2. Check Your Understanding


In your own words what is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics.


Match the following terms with their definitions:


Measurement of the average distance between each data point and the mean.


The middle value when putting data in order


Sum of values divided by the number of values

Standard Deviation

The most frequent values in a sample


What is the difference between skewness and kurtosis?


What is meant by a positive correlation between two variables?


What can a box plot tell you about your data?


Which type of graph is best used to analyze patterns of the relationship between two sets of continuous data?

  1. Bubble Chart

  2. Scatterplot

  3. Grouped Bar Chart

  4. Pie Chart


Which type of graph helps you quickly identify relationships between data points? Select all that apply.

  1. Heat Map

  2. Area Chart

  3. Line Chart

  4. Bubble Chart

  5. Table


What is the difference between population and sample?


What is meant by statistical significance?


What is the difference between a statistic and a parameter?