14.1. Models in MVC

In the previous chapter, you learned about Razor, which displays data and an interface for a user. Before that, you learned about Controllers and Routing. Remember that controllers determine what data to send to the the views. This data needs to come from some source and take some shape. Cue the models.

14.1.1. What is a Model?

A model represents the logic for accessing and storing the data used in an application. Properly constructed, models do not depend on any controllers or views. Models should be classes that are easy to reuse without modification.

Models are not the data itself, but rather the logic that moulds the data for a particular purpose. They dictate how we want to handle the data in an application-specific way. The data used in an application is often sourced from a database or an external data service. Data is typically application-agnostic. It is the work of the models we write to shape raw data into useful application information. This shaping of data to for the needs of a program is part of what is referred to as the business logic.

Consider a physical address book (a model). The pages contain blank lines for names and addresses. Anyone (a controller) can pick up the book, retrieve the information, and write to the contact. The address book model does not depend on who picks it up and enters their contacts. The book just provides organization and storage logic. On the flip side, the same person can input the same contact data into a different book. So a model transforms raw information into something useful for a particular application.

14.1.2. MVC: Putting it Together

Diagram of the MVC flow showing summaries of responsibilities for the three components.

Each MVC node carries its own responsibilities. Model

Shapes data to fit the needs of an application. View

Displays data to the user. Via events, the user interacts with the view and updates the program data. The view communicates with the controller but not the model. Controller

Directs the flow of information between the view and the model. It does not store the data or determine how to display it for the user. It passes information retrieved from the view to update the model. And it passes information retrieved from the model to update the view.


Need further review? Check out MVC for Noobs.

14.1.3. Model vs. Controller

At this point, it might be tough to decide what code belongs in the model and what belongs in the controller. Here are some general guidelines. Any code that transfers data or responds to user actions belongs in the controller. Code that retrieves data from a database or organizes that data belongs with the model.

So far, CodingEvents handles all data inside of controller classes. However, most data manipulation should occur in model classes. So we need to make a distinction between these actions. For any manipulations that must occur regardless of a user’s actions, that code belongs in the model. For changes that vary depending on a user’s input, that code belongs in the controller.

Model code defines the logic for processes that the user never needs to see. These include:

  1. The mechanics for storing data.
  2. The mechanics for retrieving data.
  3. The mechanics for organizing data.
  4. Updating or manipulating the data independent of any controller or view actions.

Controller code handles requests made by the user. These include:

  1. “Please retrieve this information from the model.”,
  2. “Please store this according to the rules of the model.”,
  3. “Please delete this item.”,
  4. “Please change this item.”,
  5. “Please display this.”,
  6. “Please modify this data in a novel way”.

Remember, the controllers are the traffic cops. These classes direct information from one place to another. Like a model, a controller does not permanently store data. Instead, it either sends the information to the model for shaping or to the view for display.

14.1.4. Check Your Understanding


If we use baking as an analogy for an MVC project, which of the following items best represents a model?

  1. The bread ingredients: flour, water, yeast, salt
  2. Mixing and shaping the ingredients together
  3. Baking the loaves into the final product
  4. Eating the bread


If we use a library as an analogy for an MVC project, which of the following items best represents a model?

  1. The books on the shelves
  2. The Dewey Decimal storage system
  3. The librarians
  4. The book readers